The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.
The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense
Example of Short Descriptive Text about Jakarta
Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java Island, at the mouth of the Ciliwung river. It dominates Indonesian’s administrative, economy, cultural activities, and is a major commercial and transportation hub within Asia.
The climate is hot and humid. Rainfall occurs throughout the year. The heaviest rainfall is from November to May. The city lies on a flat, low plain and is likely to be affected by flood during period of heavy rainfall.
The short monologue above is the audio file of listening section test for National Examination 2008. The monologue is followed by a multiple choice question at listening section number 13 as bellow:
13. Why is Jakarta at risk of flooding?
A. It lies on high land.
B. It is densely populated.
C. It lies on a flat low plain area.
D. The climate is hot and humid.
E. It is at the mouth of the Ciliwung River.
Commonly a descriptive text will describe a particular thing, place, or someone. A descriptive text is structured with general identification and followed by detail description. In Identification paragraph, descriptive text will explore to answer the question of who, what when and where. The detail description will include a description to answer how it looks, where it is sees, what it does, and what it make it special.